Expectation and pain

The more pain you expect, the more you feel, new study shows

Expect a shot to hurt and it probably will, even if the needle poke isn’t really so painful. Brace for a second shot and you’ll likely flinch again, even though—second time around—you should know better. That’s the takeaway of a new brain imaging study by CU Boulder neuroscientists which found that expectations about pain intensity can become self-fulfilling prophecies. Surprisingly, those false expectations can persist even when reality repeatedly demonstrates otherwise, the study found. ….[READ]